Your Study Guide
for
Principles of Astronomy

by Dr Jamie Love © 1997 - 2011

Lesson
Word Count
Terms
Sights and Objects
People
1 - Introduction to the Course 4888      
    NEVER STARE AT THE SUN! astronomy on your computer and in the sky Dr Jamie Love (your teacher)
2 - Getting Your Bearings 3210      
    latitude Polaris (North Star)  
    sextant URSA MAJOR, the Big Bear  
    measurements The Big Dipper  
    longitude Alkaid  
    right ascension (RA) Mizar  
    circumpolar Alioth  
      Megrez  
      Phad  
      Merak  
      Dubhe  
      Alcor  
      Chaph  
      CASSIOPEIA  
      URSA MINOR, The Little Bear  
3 - The Earth's Motion 4749      
    zenith   Ptolemy
    nadir   Ancient Greeks
    meridian    
    altitude    
    azimuth    
    Universal Time, UT    
    time zones    
    Greenwich, England    
    geocentric    
    Ptolemaic universe    
    Almagest    
    celestial sphere    
    celestial coordinates    
4 - Optical Devices 6443      
    optical devices Galilean satellites Thomas Harriot
    optics   Galileo Galilei
    refractor (telescope)   Simon Marius
    refraction   Gan De
    incident ray   Isaac Newton
    refracted ray    
    (Snell's law)    
    medium    
    c = 299,792,458 meters per second    
    refractive index    
    absolute index of refraction    
    focal point    
    convex    
    double convex    
    single convex    
    converging lenses    
    retina    
    hand lens, magnifying glass    
    virtual image    
    imaginary image    
    real image    
    objective (lens)    
    eyepiece (lens)    
    focal length    
    chromatic aberration    
    focal ratio    
    magnification    
    spy glass (terrestrial telescope)    
    total internal reflection    
    binoculars    
    prism    
    reflector (telescope)    
    Newtonian reflector    
    Cassegrain reflector    
    primary focus    
    catadrioptic    
    Schmidt-Cassegrain    
    spotting scope, monocular    
5 - Star Names and Brightness 4237      
    Celestial Equator ORION, the Hunter Johnann Bayer
    declination Betelgeuse  
    Celestial Hemisphere Bellatrix  
    circumpolar Saiph  
    equatorial Rigel  
    magnitude CANIS MAJOR, the Big Dog  
    relative magnitide Sirius, the Dog Star  
    absolute magnitude Adhara  
    light-year CANIS MINOR, the Little Dog  
    astronomical unit (AU) Procyon  
6 - The Moon's Motion 3021      
    satellite    
    gravity    
    barycenter    
    orbit    
    orbital velocity    
    tangential velocity    
    free fall    
    land tides    
    tides    
    synchronous rotation    
    near side (Earth side)    
    far side (star side)    
    high tide    
    low tide    
7 - The Phases of the Moon 2597      
    phases of moon New Moon  
    Earthshine Crescent Moon  
    synodic period First Quarter Moon  
    sidereal period Gibbous Moon (Waxing Moon)  
    spring tides Full Moon  
    neap tides Waning Moon  
      Last Quarter Moon  
      Old Moon  
8 - The Lunar Landscape 3785      
    Moon Mare Serenitatis  
    terminator Sea of Serenity  
    maria Mare Crisium  
    mara Sea of Crises  
    basalt Mare Tranquillitatis  
    lava flows Sea of Tranquillity  
    pyroxene Mare Fecunditatis  
    ilmenite Sea of Fertility  
    highlands Mare Vaporum  
    breccia Sea of Vapors  
    rock dating Mare Frigoris  
    plagioclase feldspar Sea of Cold  
    olivine Haemus Mountains  
    KREEPs the Alps  
    regolith Alpine Valley  
    crater Mount Blanc  
    craters Julius Caesar  
    rays Arago  
    terraced Manilius  
    walled plains Plinius  
    rills Proclus  
    rilles Aristoteles  
    clefts Eudoxus  
    fault Endymion  
    Lunar Transient Phenomena, LTP Atlas  
      Bond  
      Mare Imbrium  
      Sea of Showers  
      Oceanus Procellarum  
      Ocean of Storms  
      Sinus Aestuum  
      Bay of Heats  
      Sinus Roris  
      Bay of Dews  
      Apennines Mountains  
      Carpathians Mountains  
      Copernicus  
      Eratosthenes  
      Kepler  
      Plato  
      Archimedes  
      Aristillus  
      Autolycus  
      Pythagoras  
      Aristarchus  
      Mare Nubium  
      Sea of Clouds  
      Mare Humorum  
      Sea of Humors  
      Tycho  
      Clavius  
      Walter  
      Ptolemaeus  
      Grimaldi  
      Mare Foecunditatis  
      Sea of Fertility  
      Pyrenees Mountains  
      Mare Nectaris  
      Sea of Nectar  
      Mare Australe  
      Sea of the South  
      Theophilus  
      Cyrillus  
      Catharina  
      Piccolomi  
      Altai Scarp  
      Langrenus  
9 - Star Colors and Temperatures 2132      
    surface temperatures TAURUS, the Bull,  
    reflected light Aldebaran  
    emitted light Alnath  
    heat energy    
    Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution    
    peak energy    
    radiation    
    (Wien's displacement law)    
10 - Color Designation and the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram 2707      
    star color, star types, classes and subclasses Capella  
    luminosity Menkarlina  
    Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram, H-R Diagram Hassaleh  
    Main Sequence Almaaz  
    giants Alnath  
    supergiants AURIGA, the Charioteer  
    white dwarfs GEMINI, the Twins  
      Castor  
      Pollux  
      Tejat  
      Alhena  
      (Wolf 339)  
11 - The Positions of the Planets 2749      
    conjunction (Mercury)  
    solar conjunction Venus  
    elongation Earth (?)  
    solar elongation Mars  
    inferior planets Jupiter  
    superior planets Saturn  
    superior conjunction (Uranus)  
    inferior conjunction (Neptune)  
    opposition (Pluto)  
    quadrature    
12 - The Motion of the Planets 3562      
    direct motion    
    retrograde motion    
    synodic period    
    sidereal period    
13 - The Birth of Stars 2518      
    stellar evolution    
    nebula    
    averted vision    
    fovea    
    cones    
    rods    
    nebulas    
    emitting nebula    
    reflecting nebula    
    dark nebula    
    protostars    
    T Tauri stars    
    nuclear fusion    
    Main Sequence    
    star nursery    
    protostar    
    T Tauri    
    blue giant    
    red dwarf    
14 - Star Clusters 2605      
    star clusters (M3) Hipparchus
    open star clusters Pleiades, the Seven Sisters Homer
    globular star clusters Hyades  
      LEO, the Lion  
      Regulus  
      CANCER, the Crab  
      Praesepe  
      HYDRA, the Water Snake  
      Alphard  
      SEXTANS, the Sexant  
      CRATER, the Cup  
      CORVUS, the Crow  
15 - Star Physics 3540      
    deuteron   Einstein
    positron   Arthur Eddington
    neutrino    
    proton    
    hydrogen    
    helium    
    cation    
    fusion    
    transmutation    
    MeVs    
    E = mc2    
    Eddington limit    
    luminosity    
    mass    
    photon    
    gamma ray    
    solar mass    
16 - Star Structure and Spectroscopy 3009      
    kinetic energy   Lockyer
    radiative zone   Sir Isaac Newton
    random walk   Wollaston
    convection zone   Josef Fraunhofer
    photosphere   Gustav Kirchoff
    refracted   Robert Bunsen
    prism    
    spectrum    
    angstrom    
    wavelength    
    Fraunhofer lines    
    emission spectrum    
    absorption spectrum    
    chromosphere    
    spectroscopy    
17 - Aging Stars and Red Giants 3534      
    stellar evolution    
    red giant    
    aging star    
    red dwarf    
    blue giant    
    Zero Age Main Sequence, ZAMS stars    
    envelope    
    supergiants    
    electron degenerate    
    triple alpha process    
    helium flash    
    helium shell flashes    
18 - Planetary Nebula and White Dwarfs 2838      
    planetary nebula    
    dark nebula    
    emission planetary nebula    
    protoplanetary nebula    
    white dwarf    
    degenerate matter    
    black dwarf    
19 - Spring Stars and Constellations 2686      
      Sirius A  
      Sirius B  
      Ring Nebula  
      Vega  
      LYRA, the Harp  
      Sulaphat  
      Sheliak  
      Arcturus  
      BÖÖTES, the Herdsman  
      QUADRANS  
      Spica  
      VIRGO, the Virgin  
      CORONA BOREALIS, the Northern Crown  
      Alphekka, Gemma  
      M Coronae  
      R Coronae  
      HERCULES  
      Rasalgethi, alpha-HERCULES  
      M13  
      Rasalhague, alpha-OPHIUCUS  
20 - The Earth's Aurora 3287      
    auroral ovals aurora E. W. Maunder
    plasma northern lights, aurora borealis James Van Allen
    solar wind southern lights, aurora australis  
    magnetic field    
    ionized    
    heliopause    
    sunspots    
    solar flares    
    coronal mass ejections    
    solar storm    
    solar cycle    
    Maunder Minimum    
    magnetosphere    
    magnetopause    
    magnetotail    
    bow shock    
    magnetosheath    
    cusp    
    Van Allen zones, Van Allen belts    
21 - Supernovas and Neutron Stars 2748      
    supergiant   Chandrasekar
    iron fusion    
    supernova Type II    
    nova    
    supernova    
    neutron star    
    degenerate iron    
    degenerate electron pressure    
    degenerate neutron pressure    
    neutrinos    
    Chandrasekar's limit    
22 - Pulsars 2555      
    X-rays supernova 1987A, Sanduleak  
    radio waves Crab Nebula  
    magnetic axis    
    angular momentum    
    pulsar, "Little Green Men"    
23 - Black Holes 3785      
    black hole LYRA, the Harp  
    Schwartzchild radius CYGNUS, the swan  
    event horizon Deneb  
    singularity Sadar  
    mini black holes Chi Cygni  
    Kerr black hole Eta Cygni,  
      Cygnus X-1  
      AQUILA, the Eagle,  
      Great Summer Triangle  
24 - Orbits 4225      
    epicycles   Mikolaj Kopernik, Copernicus
    planetary orbits   Tycho Brahe
    Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion   Johannes Kepler
    ellipse    
    major axis    
    minor axis    
    focus, foci    
    eccentricity    
    Kepler's first law    
    aphelion    
    perihelion    
    Kepler's second law    
    Kepler's third law    
    orbital inclination    
    ecliptic, ecliptic plane    
25 - Eclipses (Part 1) 2390      
    occultation    
    eclipse    
    RA & declination    
    solar eclipse    
    lunar eclipse    
    ecliptic & inclination    
    minute of arc, arc minute    
    second of arc, arc second    
    partial eclipse    
    nodes    
    umbra    
    penumbra    
    apogee    
    perigee    
    total eclipse    
    totality    
    annular eclipse    
26 - Eclipses (Part 2) 5044      
    microflares   Thales
    corona    
    prominences    
    quiescent prominence    
    explosive prominence    
    Baily's Beads    
    Saros series    
    Saros cycle    
    lunation    
    Draconic month    
    shadow bands    
    The Sun's photosphere will    
27 - Multiple Star Systems 3078      
    binary stars, binary star systems Mizar & Alcor, Mizar/Alcor pair  
    multiple stars, multiple star systems PERSEUS  
    primary star Mirphak  
    secondary star Algol, Beta Persei  
    optical double    
    separation    
    position angle, PA    
    eclipsing binary    
    mass transfer    
28 - Multiple Star Systems, Novas and Supernova Type I 5220      
    accretion disk Algol Alfredo Pereira
    nova PERSEUS  
    supernova Type I ANDROMEDA  
    supernova Type II Almaak  
      Mirach  
      Alpheratz  
      Mirphak  
      CORONA BOREALIS, The Northern Crown  
      Blaze Star, T Corona  
      Nova Aquilae 1999#2  
      Alberio  
      Castor A & Castor B  
      Sirius A & Sirius B  
      Lambda Tauri  
      Gamma Tauri  
      Sheliak  
      TRIANGULUM  
29 - The Formation of our Solar System and Long Period Comets 2226      
    accretion disk Oort Cloud Jan Oort
    accretion process Comet Hyakutake Yuji Hyakutake
    protoplanets, ProtoEarth, ProtoSun    
    Age of Great Bombardment    
    Earth's mantle, Earth's core    
    collision hypothesis    
    long period comets    
30 - Short Period Comets and Comets in General 3584      
    short period comets Kuiper Belt Gerard Kuiper
    dirty snowball Encke's Comet David Jewitt, Jane Luu
    nucleus Halley's Comet Edmund Halley
    jets Comet Brooks 2 J F Encke
    gas-ion tail Lexell's Comet Eugene Shoemaker, Carolyn Shoemaker, David Levy
    dust tail Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9  
31 - Meteors and Asteriods 3383      
    meteor shower Tunguska event Daniel Kirkwood
    meteoroid Cerus William Kelvin
    meteor Vesta  
    micrometeorite Pallas  
    meteorite    
    radiant    
    Zenith Hourly Rate, ZHR    
    asteriod, minor planet    
    Asteroid Belt    
    Kirkwood gaps    
    S-type asteroid    
    C-type asteroid    
    M-type asteroid    
    Trojan asteroid    
    Amor asteroid    
    Aten asteroid    
    Apollo asteroid    
    isotopic signature    
    SNC meteorites, Sherrgotty India, Nakhla Egypt, Chassigny France    
    tektite    
    panspermia    
32 - The Late Summer Night Sky 1751      
      Perseids meteor showers  
      Comet Swift-Tuttle  
      Square of Pegasus  
      Algenib  
      Markab  
      Scheat  
      Alpheratz  
      PEGASUS, the Winged Horse  
      LIBRA, the Scales, the Balance  
      Zubenelchemale  
      Zubenelgenubi  
      SCORPIUS, the Scorpion  
      Antares  
      SAGITTARIUS, the Archer (Teapot)  
      OPHIUCHUS, Aesculapius  
      SERPENS CAPUT, the Serpent's Head  
      SERPENS CAUDA, the Serpent's Body  
33 - The Tilt of a Planet's Rotation 2946      
    Celestial Equator and Celestial Hemispheres Saturn's rings  
    rotational axis    
    seasons    
    Solstice    
    Equinox    
    Summer Solstice    
    Winter Solstice    
    Autum(nal) Equinox, Fall Equinox    
    Vernal Equinox, Spring Equinox    
    axial inclination    
34 - The Path of the Sun in our Sky 3549      
    Sun's apparent path    
    longest day    
    shortest day    
    Arctic Circle    
    Antarctic Circle    
35 - The Milky Way Galaxy 3157      
    galaxy Milky Way Galaxy, the Galaxy Herschel
    milky circle, galaxias kuklo Sagittarius A * Harlow Shapley
    interstellar dust   van de Hulst
    interstellar hydrogen, 21.1 centimeters in wavelength    
    galactic plane    
    COsmic Background Explorer (COBE) Project, satellite    
    Population I stars    
    Population II stars    
36 - The Local Group (of Galaxies) 2442      
    the Local Group Andromeda Galaxy, M31 Ferdinand Magellan
      M110 (NGC203)  
      M32  
      Clouds of Magellan, Magellanic Clouds  
      Large Cloud  
      Small Cloud  
      Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy  
      Maffei 1  
      Triangulum Spiral (pinwheel)  
      alpha-TRIANGULUM  
37 - Classification of Galaxies 2878      
    Messier object Praesepe, in CANCER, M44 Charles Messier
    M number Pleiades, in TAURUS, M45 Edwin Hubble
    spiral galaxies (S) Orion Nebula, in ORION, M42  
    Sa, Sb, Sc Ring Nebula, in LYRA, M57  
    barred spiral galaxies (SB) M31 Andromeda Galaxy  
    elliptical galaxies (E)    
    irregular galaxies (Irr I and Irr II)    
    disk galaxies    
38 - Galaxies Structure, Evolution and Dynamics 3942      
    Population I stars globular clusters, M3, M13  
    Population II stars    
    protogalaxy cloud    
    density waves    
    galaxy clusters    
    tidal bridge    
    galactic cannibalism    
39 - The Zodiac 2774      
    Zodiac CAPRICORNUS, the Seagoat  
    ecliptic AQUARIUS  
      M2, globular cluster  
      PISCES, the Fishes  
      Circlet of PISCES  
      alpha-PISCES  
      ARIES, the Ram  
40 - Celestial Coordinates 2493      
    celestial coordinates DELPHINUS, the Dolphin  
    right ascension, RA SAGITTA, the Arrow  
    Spring Equinox, Vernal Equinox    
    First Point, RA 0h    
    zenith    
    meridian    
    altitude    
    azimuth    
    Celestial Equator    
    ecliptic    
41 - Strange Galaxies 3928      
    starburst galaxy M87  
    infrared waves, infrared M82  
    Boltzmann-Maxwell distribution    
    total luminosity    
    Lsun    
    scientific notation    
    active galaxy, active galactic nucleus, AGN    
    radio wavelengths, radiowaves    
    bremsstrahlung radiation    
    X-rays    
    ultraviolet, UV    
    gamma rays    
    synchrotron radiation    
    radio galaxies    
    Seyfert galaxies    
    BL Lacertae galaxies    
    quasars    
    superluminal    
42 - Precession of the Earth 2856      
    precession, precess CEPHEUS, the King  
    centripetal force Alderamin  
      DRACO, the Dragon  
      Eltamin  
      Alwaid  
      precession circle  
      First Point of Aries  
      First Point of Pisces  
43 - Distances in Space 3529      
    parallax 61 Cygni Friedrich Bessel
    binocular parallax delta-Cephei John Goodricke
    annual parallax   Walter Bade
    parsec    
    standard candle    
    inverse square law    
    relative magnitude (brightness)    
    absolute magnitude (brightness)    
    Cepheid variables    
    W Virginis variables    
    Population I stars, Population II stars    
44 - Movement in Space 4101      
    motion, relative motion Barnard's Star Edward Emerson Barnard
    transverse motion (proper motion) Pegasus 51, Peg 51 Peter van de Kamp
    astrometry   Gatewood and Eichhorn
    barycenter   John L Hershey
    perturbation, wobble   Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz
    radial motion    
    Doppler effect    
    blue shifted    
    red shifted    
    extrasolar planets    
45 - The Winter Southern Sky 3163      
    long-term variable star Fomalhaut, Lacaille
    pulsating M-type supergiant PISCIS AUSTRALIS, the Southern Fish  
      GRUS, the Crane  
      Alnair  
      Al Dhanab  
      Ankaa  
      PHOENIX, the mythical bird  
      SCULPTOR  
      CETUS  
      Diphda  
      Menkar  
      Mira  
      ERIDANUS, (wandering) River  
      Cursa (Kursa)  
      Zaurak  
      Rana  
      Delta-Eridani  
      Epsilon-Eridani  
      LEPUS,the Hare  
      Arneb  
      Nihal  
      COLUMBA, the Dove (COLUMBA NOAE, Noah's Dove)  
      Phaet  
      CAELUM  
      HOROGIUM  
      FORNAX  
      SCULPTOR  
46 - The Extreme Southern Celestial Hemisphere 3122      
      Archernar, Ferdinand Magellan
      Canopus  
      ARGO NAVIS, the Argo Ship  
      CARINA, the Keel  
      VELA, the Sails  
      PUPPIS, the Deck  
      MALUS, the Mast  
      PYXIS, the Compass  
      ANTLIA, the Pump  
      PICTOR, the Painter  
      Alpha Pictoris  
      Beta Pictoris  
      Gamma Pictoris  
      Large Magellanic Cloud, LMC  
      Small Magellanic Cloud, SMC  
      CRUX AUSTRALIS, the Southern Cross  
      CENTAURUS, the Centaur  
      Alpha Centauri  
      Alpha Centauri A  
      Alpha Centauri B  
      Alpha Centauri C, Proxima Centauri  
      Beta Centauri  
      DORADO, the Swordfish  
      HYDRUS, the Little Snake  
      TUCANA, the Toucan  
      PAVO, the PEACOCK  
      TELESCOPIUM, the Telescope  
      TRIANGULUM AUSTRALE, the Southern Triangle  
      LUPUS, the Wolf  
      MUSCA, the Fly  
47 - The Expanding Universe 2919      
    red shift and the universe expanding   Slipher
    Hubble's constant    
    60 kilometers per second for each million parsecs    
    red shift    
    symbol "Z"    
    relativistic effects    
    12 billion light-years    
48 - Cosmology 4314      
    cosmology   George Lemaitre
    critical density, Omegam   George Gamow
    Big Crunch   Robert Wilson and Arno Penzias
    Big Bang Theory    
    standard cosmology    
    particle cosmology    
    quantum cosmology, Planck epoch    
    gravitational instability    
    plasma    
    background radiation    
    Ripples of the Big Bang    
    Standard Cosmology Model    
    Steady-State Theory    
    Oscillating Universe Theory    




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